Crimson red eggs are apparent in early spring beneath the female's white waxy cover. It is most common in the northern United States, and southern Canada. Authored by: Gregory A. Hoover, Sr. Extension Associate. Treatments are often applied when crawlers first emerge from their eggs and before they grow their protective waxy coating.
Registered insecticides may be applied during the growing season to combat the two generations of crawlers that develop. Image 1 - Pine Needle Scale Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch) Pine needle scale: infestation on Mugho pine S. Tunnock - USDA Forest Service; UGA2252064b, Image 2 - Pine Needle Scale Chionaspis pinifoliae (Fitch) Pine needle scale: infestation on foliage J.B. Hanson - USDA Forest Service; UGA0949066b. * The above images are copyrighted by The University of Georgia and the individual photographers or organizations. This method will not harm any beneficial insects, and is safe for application to organically grown crops. Significant foliar dieback can reduce the growth rate of the tree. Receive Email Notifications for New Publications. The waxy cover (Image 2) of the female is about 3 mm long, white with a yellow tip at the narrowed front end (Image 3). This publication printed on: July 22, 2022, Armored Scale Identification and Management on Ornamental Plants, First Generation Pine Needle Scale Crawlers are Afoot, NC State Extension Plant Pathology Publications and Factsheets, NC State Horticultural Science Publications, North Carolina Agricultural Chemicals Manual, NC Those that land on a suitable host plant will quickly settle down, insert their piercing-sucking mouthparts into the mesophyll and begin producing their own waxy covering over their bodies. 2022 University of Massachusetts Amherst Site Policies, Center for Agriculture, Food,andtheEnvironment, UMassExtension Landscape, Nursery and UrbanForestry Program, CenterforAgriculture, Food, and theEnvironment, Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment.
These reddish brown eggs hatch in the spring. Registered insecticides may be applied according to label directions against newly hatched first generation crawlers in May and again from mid-July through August to manage second generation crawlers. For assistance with a specific problem, contact your local Cooperative Extension center.
The females eventually lay up to 40 eggs that hatch into a second generation. Males will mature and gain the features associated with the typical adult insect body. Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI): Poultry owners should be on high alert. ), Give us your feedback on our Pheno Forecast maps. N.C. A&T State University. By September, the second generation of crawlers matures. They are laid in clusters beneath waxy covers secreted by the females. Pine needle scales are most damaging to ornamental pine plantings. Adult females measure around 3.0 mm long.
By continuing to use this site you accept our, (Tim Tigner, Virginia Department of Forestry, Bugwood.org). As the crawlers continue to feed, they excrete the white, waxy material that forms the armored cover. Ornamental pines should be monitored during April and July to detect infestations. NC State University and NC GDD: 448 and again at 1917, for the crawlers. Infestations of pine needle scale also occur on Douglas-fir, eastern red cedar, and spruce, albeit with less frequency. Pine needle scale is not worth treating if the population is low.
It is a common and potentially serious pest. By entering your email, you consent to receive communicationsfromPennStateExtension. Read our Dispose of empty containers right away, in a safe manner and place. Pine needle scale is a native pest that affects ornamental pines and Christmas tree plantations. They lack mouthparts, but feature a set of wings that protrude out from their backs, enabling them to fly short distances. Similar to immature crawlers, females have piercing mouthparts that are employed for feeding. Newly hatched nymphs, or crawlers, are light purple to reddish brown, and oval shaped. Many pine (Pinus) species but mostly mugo (P. mugo) and Scots (P. sylvestris) pines in the Northeast. After settling down, they secrete the characteristic waxy covering over their bodies. Pine needle scale attacks a slew of hosts, including Austrian, eastern white, mugo, red, and Scots pine. Pine needle scale has also been found on spruce, firs, Douglas-fir, and cedars. After initiating feeding, the crawlers brighten in color, turning yellow. As many as 40 eggs may be found under each scale. Help us improve these maps! Give your feedback on the sidebar on the right side of this page. Nearly all eggs of the spring generation hatch within 5 to 7 days. 8 (5): 113-123.
The males navigate to the females to mate. Sign up to be notified by email approximately two weeks and again six days ahead of key growing degree day thresholds for species of interest at your location. Apply horticultural oil to smother scales or scale crawlers when monitoring indicates crawlers are present. In mid-to late May these hatch into crawlers which move over the needles for a few days and then settle down to feed. The foliage of severely infested trees may appear gray or white-washed, due to the prevalence of waxy coverings on the hosts branches. The waxy covers are white with a yellow tip located at the anterior. Your observations will help scientists better understand when this species is active and susceptible to treatment. The waxy cover of the male is white and only 2 mm long. Small infestations can increase to large populations within one growing season and cause extensive needle, branch and, sometimes, tree mortality. Indians. The pine needle scale is a key native pest of pine, Douglas-fir, spruce, and cedar in landscapes, nurseries, and Christmas tree plantations in Pennsylvania. The scale insect; a paragon of confusion. Entering your postal code will help us provide news or event updates for your area. These oils are effective at killing all life stages, including the eggs. The eggs overwinter until the following spring, whereupon they hatch, beginning the cycle anew.
The females lay their eggs on the infested branches, and in bark crevices. Horticultural oils can be utilized to smother the insects. Have you used our Pheno Forecast maps to plan treatment activities, or to know when to search for pests of interest? We forecast crawler emergence based on growing degree days. Additional treatment resources are available through Penn State Extension and Colorado State University Extension. Several species of lady beetles and wasp parasitoids feed on life stages of this scale insect. This species removes plant fluids from needles with their piercing-sucking mouthparts, causing them to turn yellowish brown. Each cover extends up 3.0 mm in length. However, if there are lots of scales on each needle, it may wise to treat as the scales are certainly not helping the plant.
Viewourprivacypolicy. Infested needles will turn yellowish-brown in the area surrounding each sessile scale. This site is maintained by Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment in the College of Natural Sciences.
When the crawlers are stationary, they become vulnerable to several natural predators, including lady beetles and wasp parasitoids. Shortly after mating, the males expire. For insect pest species, Pheno Forecasts are based on published growing degree day (GDD) thresholds for key points in species life cycles. The crawlers turn yellow as they mature. commitment to diversity. They have flattened bodies, which are tan to dark orange, and are absent of legs and wings. The crawler stage of this armored scale insect is reddish. When trees are heavily infested, needles, shoots, or entire branches may die back. commitment to diversity. Trees that have been weakened by pine needle scale are also predisposed to invasions from disease pathogens, and other insects. Why do we need this? ; and cedars, Cedrus spp. This native insect attacks mugo pine, P. mugo; Austrian pine, Pinus nigra; red pine, P. resinosa; Scots pine, P. sylvestris; eastern white pine, P. strobus; Douglas-fir, Pseudotsuga menziensii; most spruces, Picea spp. Cooperative Extension prohibits discrimination and harassment regardless of age, color, disability, family and marital status, gender identity, national origin, political beliefs, race, religion, sex (including pregnancy), sexual orientation and veteran status. Pine needle scale passes through four stages during its life cycle: an egg stage, a larval stage, a pupal stage, and an adult stage. After feeding for 6 to 8 weeks, the crawlers mature, becoming males or females. Upon feasting for a week, the crawlers molt into second stage instars. Publication date: Feb. 25, 2013 These key points typically represent life cycle stages when management actions are most effective. Once liberated, the crawlers navigate over the needles for a few days, before settling down to feed. This pest is primarily a problem in the landscape and nursery and is rarely found in the forest setting. Upon emergence, adult males will mate with females through their waxy coverings. Connect with UMass Extension Landscape, Nursery and Urban Forestry Program: Civil Rights and Non-Discrimination Information, UMass Research and Education Center Farms, Soil and Plant Nutrient Testing Laboratory, Water Testing / Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Conservation Assessment Prioritization System (CAPS), Extension Risk Management/Crop Insurance Education, North American Aquatic Connectivity Collaborative, Agriculture & Commercial Horticulture Resources. New crawlers form a waxy covering rather quickly and may be protected from these chemicals. Tiny reddish-purple crawlers emerge from under the old armor and crawl around for a while before settling down on the needles to feed, secrete the characteristic white armor, and grow.